Pediatric Terms and Recap

Since my notes were half in Portuguese and half in English it took me some extra time to compile the diseases and disorders I saw in pediatrics.  I saw some of these diseases several times such as CF and others I saw once.  I cannot and will not disclose patient information as that is unethical and would be a disgrace to this experience.  All this information is pretty much as bland as a wikipedia entry.

In alphabetical order:

  • Asthma
  • Autism
  • Bronchiectasis – abnormal widening of airways leaving them flabby and scarred.  The way Dr. Juan described it; it is like Swiss cheese for lungs.  It makes it very difficult to receive enough oxygen and the lungs have to overexert themselves.  This patient did not follow treatment and did not come in until condition was very escalated.
  • Bronchiolitis – infection of the tiny airways, common in infants and young children
  • Cardiac Murmur
  • Catastrophic Anti-phospholipid Syndrome – this is essentially multi-system organ/tissue failure that has a high mortality rate, but if caught early has a good chance for survival.
  • Celiac’s disease
  • Common flu
  • Congenital muscular disorder – this was a very interesting case.  The patient lacked a particular muscle protein, which led to severe muscular degeneration or lack of generation.  Not only were positional and voluntary muscles affected but also involuntary muscles making digestion and eating difficult.  Unfortunately patients do not have a long life span, doctors can only do their best to provide a good quality of life.
  • Cystic Fibrosis – Dr. Juan’s specialty, Cystic Fibrosis patients suffer from a genetic mutation, which affects mucus-producing cells especially in the lungs in pancreas.  These patients are unable to properly expel excess mucus with cilia movement and this creates an environment where bacteria love to thrive.  Cystic fibrosis patients are susceptible to infection and once colonized it is very hard to eliminate or control the bacteria.  Life span is typically 40 years.
  • Diabetes
  • Echolalia
  • Epilepsy – characterized by either or both convulsive seizures absence seizures
  • Extreme hypertension – led to episodes of confusion and disorientation
  • Henoch- Shönlein purpura – a skin disease that affects children that causes small hemorrhages with joint and abdominal pain.  It also leads to kidney impairment or chronic kidney disease.  HSP is an inflammation of the blood vessels and characterized by IgA.
  • Herpes
  • Immunodeficiency – this patient had been tested in larger centers in Lisbon and Porto and the cause or name of his immunodeficiency has not been found.  It is maintained by IgG injections but no one seems to be able to decipher the symptoms and test results. – symptoms led to my favorite word of the pediatric rotation: “hepatosplenomegaly” 🙂 (enlargement of liver and spleen)
  • Infected tracheotomy
  • Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) or juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) – early onset arthritis indicated by swelling at the joints: knees, elbows, wrists, and knuckles.  These patients could walk but cannot play or jump or run like most children.
  • Lung infection
  • Lupus
  • Pyelonephritis – kidney infection
  • Steven Johnson’s Syndrome – a reaction to medications or infections resulting in necrosis, which can be treated like infectious third degree, burns.  Treatment includes an anti-biotic and some topical creams.  Usually the necrosis has a central blister and also around the back, arms, tongue and lips.  Note if you decide to look this one up on Wikipedia/Google images, it is quite graphic
  • Takayasu arthritis- rare from of vasculitis that causes inflammation of vessels such as the aorta, which can damage important vessels, which deliver blood to the rest of the body, found most often in women and not in children (rare case).
  • Tonsillitis
  • Uncommon allergy to milk, soy, and rice – this allergy did not react until it reached the small intestine, in which his entire body went into shock and his heart became tachycardic. (Poor baby!)
  • Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
  • VRDL – congenital syphilis
  • Wart – treated with cryotherapy (cold therapy ex. dry ice)
  • Xerophtalmia – a cool word for chronic dry eyes (eyes fail to produce tears)

*Other things I saw/learned the difference in sound between a dry cough, a whooping cough and a wet cough.  Also the difference in breath sounds from just being in the room with a patient.  Dr. Juan would show me how these small children who were breathing improperly often had a good set of abdominal muscles since they were using their abs to push in and out to breath instead of their diaphragm.  He had many cystic fibrosis and asthma patients, so I could hear and see the difference between sick patients and recovering patients.


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